Mainstreaming Yoruba Indigenous Strategies and Settings into Open and Distance Learning Peace Education Curriculum in Nigeria


  • Musibau Olabamiji Oyebode National Open University of Nigeria
  • Olusola Matthew Ojo National Open University of Nigeria


peace, culture, virtues, violence, strategies, curriculum


African schools’ curricula are largely dominated by western methodologies, epistemologies, theories and case studies. Teaching peace education within the confines of the classrooms and formal settings has been found inadequate to handle myriad of contemporary conflicts in Nigeria. Open Distance Learning (ODL) has a great role in extending the space for peace education. Thus, this study embarked on ethnographic survey of strategies used in Yorubaland to instill the culture of peace with a view to integrating them into ODL peace education curriculum. Observation of 12 cultural events, questionnaire administered on 300 indigenous actors and interviews conducted with 12 cultural custodians in six Yoruba states were triangulated as instruments of data collection. Descriptive statistics put in tables were used to present quantitative data in percentages while qualitative analysis of data and discussion were based on social-constructivism theory. The study revealed that verbal art genres are still prevalent in Yoruba indigenous settings. The genres are used at viable home settings, festivals, rituals, moonlight assemblies, meetings, age-grade gatherings and other socio-cultural and political convergences. Traditional strategies and settings explore the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains of the individual in entrenching peace culture. It is recommended that mainstreaming practical simulation of African indigenous African strategies and field trip to indigenous settings into ODL peace education curriculum will enhance learning. Online simulation of indigenous strategies and settings as well as integration of blended learning opportunities like field trip and industrial work experience will also be useful in ODL curriculum.

Résumé : Les programmes des écoles africaines sont largement dominés par les méthodologies, épistémologies, théories et études de cas occidentales. Enseigner l'éducation à la paix dans les limites des salles de classe et des environnements formels s'est révélé insuffisant pour gérer une myriade de conflits contemporains au Nigeria. L'enseignement ouvert à distance (ODL) joue un rôle important dans la réduction de cette lacune. Ainsi, cette étude se lance dans une enquête ethnographique sur les stratégies utilisées au Yorubaland pour inculquer la culture de la paix en vue de les intégrer au programme à distance d’éducation à la paix. L'observation de 12 événements culturels, le questionnaire adressé à 300 acteurs autochtones et les entretiens avec 12 dépositaires culturels au Yorubaland ont été triangulés en tant qu'instruments de collecte de données. Des statistiques descriptives placées dans des tableaux ont été utilisées pour présenter des données quantitatives en pourcentages, tandis que l'analyse qualitative des données et la discussion ont été basées sur la théorie du constructivisme social. L'étude a révélé que les genres artistiques verbaux sont encore répandus dans de nombreux contextes autochtones et utilisés dans les domaines de l’habitat, des festivals, des rituels, des assemblées au clair de lune, réunions, des rassemblements de classes d'âge et autres convergences socioculturelles et politiques. Les stratégies et les paramètres traditionnels explorent les domaines cognitif, psychomoteur et affectif de l'individu dans la consolidation de la culture de la paix. Il est donc postulé que l’intégration de la simulation pratique et de la visite sur le terrain sont souhaitables dans le programme à distance d’éducation à la paix. La simulation en ligne de stratégies et de contextes autochtones et l'intégration d'opportunités d'apprentissage combinées, telles que des visites sur le terrain et des expériences de travail dans le secteur industriel, sont utiles dans le curriculum de l’enseignement ouvert et à distance.

Author Biographies

Musibau Olabamiji Oyebode, National Open University of Nigeria

Department of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution,
Faculty of Social Sciences
National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.

Olusola Matthew Ojo, National Open University of Nigeria

Department of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution,
Faculty of Social Sciences
National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.


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How to Cite

Oyebode, M. O., & Ojo, O. M. (2019). Mainstreaming Yoruba Indigenous Strategies and Settings into Open and Distance Learning Peace Education Curriculum in Nigeria. West African Journal of Open and Flexible Learning, 8(1), 1–24. Retrieved from



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